Tag Archives: Cybersecurity

New Software Scam

Do you have antivirus/malware software on your PC/Mac/Server? If so, pay close attention to that software’s renewal terms. Watch out for any future phishing emails that contain an attached invoice. The scam asks you to either click a link to renew your subscription or call the phone number listed on the fake invoice to cancel. 

Tips to Avoid Antivirus / Malware Software Scams

  • Visit the software company’s verified URL and pay through the software company’s portal
  • Calendar renewal dates
  • Keep your antivirus/malware software up to date
  • Know the general terms of all software on your PC/Mac
  • Avoid paying invoices through email
  • When in doubt, look in the software settings to find Support info. Don’t always trust contact information on search engines because sometimes the business information can be claimed by scammers.
  • Sometimes scammers pry on your browsing habits or purchases. Be sure to limit browser data collection by checking your browser’s security and browser settings
  • Keep all other software on your PC or Mac up to date
  • Educate your staff on technology scams so they know what to watch out for too
  • Check with your IT professional to make sure the software you use is up to date with today’s cybersecurity market, malware, scams

Visit www.scbar.org/tech for great links or email pmap@scbar.org for more advice.

Seven Simple Suggestions

I know what you are thinking: don’t I have enough on my plate right now without making New Year’s resolutions? I agree. That’s why I have chosen a few very simple suggestions that might actually make your life a little simpler. Some of these resolutions, I mean, suggestions, also help you stay out of ethics trouble (win-win!). They are in no particular order of importance – start with the easiest for you to do. 

Get a password manager. We already know that passwords need to be complicated in order to be strong and we shouldn’t use the same one more than once (or write them on sticky notes or store them in Word file). The solution is a password manager. There are lots of good free and cheap password managers. Need to create a new password? Tell the password manager how long your want it and if you want to use letters, numbers, special characters, or all three. The password manager will create a password and save it for you. Later, when you visit that website and have to login, the password manager can fill in the information for you. All you need to remember is your login and password for the password manager! Popular password managers include Dashlane, LastPass, 1Password, and Roboform. You can also see if your internet security software offers a password manager – many do. 

Start using two factor or multi-factor authentication (MFA). I know that sounds techie, but stay with me. The easiest way to explain 2FA or MFA is to tell you that you’ve probably already used it. Log in to most financial institutions and you have to enter your password and then perform a second step, such as entering a code you receive on your phone by text. Voila! That’s MFA! Start adding this extra security layer now with all your email accounts. If you have a Google account, set up “2-Step Verification.” Not sure how? Google it. For the rest of the year, when you login to any of your online accounts or websites, look for instructions on how to set up MFA (and don’t forget that new password manager can store those logins and passwords). Trust me on this one, it may be the best and easiest way to protect yourself from hackers and safeguard client confidentiality. 

Check Google My Business. Yes, that’s actually what Google named their free marketing service. Do this: Google your law firm. Alongside the usual results list, you’ll see a block with photos, a map view, your firm address, phone, and other information. This is a free business listing and you need to “claim” it if you haven’t already. Click “Own this business?” or “Claim this business.” Do it, because if you don’t, someone else may and you may not like what they do next. But that’s not the only reason to claim it. You’ll be able to correct and add information and take other steps to help clients find you better. 

Try not to email clients anything confidential. Email fraud can occur when a lawyer emails details about a case to clients and other parties. If one of the people has had their email breached, the hacker may be watching email exchanges waiting for an opportune moment to intervene. This usually happens once they learn about money changing hands. They’ll spoof one of the parties’ email address and send their own settlement offer or bank routing instructions. If you need to discuss a case, use a client portal in a practice management program. If you’re using a cloud practice management program such as Clio, MyCase, Cosmolex, Rocket Matter (etc.) talk to the provider about how to set up secure portals for clients. Besides being more secure, clients appreciate being able to see how their case is progressing. 

Make sure that you have cyber insurance. According to a 2019 survey by the American Bar Association, one in four law firms have experienced a security breach. General liability and professional liability insurance policies may not cover all the costs of a cyber incident. Talk to your carrier and find out what your policies cover. Most lawyers discover that they need to add a cyber liability policy. Whether you are shopping for cyber insurance or reviewing your current policy, there are numerous articles on the internet outlining the claims that are frequently denied or not covered by cyber insurance, so read policies carefully.  

Hire a virtual receptionist. Clients hire law firms that have a live human answering the phone. For many small firms, a virtual receptionist/answering service can be a lifesaver. Banish the idea of the impersonal answering service your doctor uses after hours. Today’s virtual receptionists can help you all day by handling tasks a real receptionist would do. There are many companies to choose from, including Call Experts, Smith.AI, Ruby, and LexReception.  

Call the Bar for free help. The South Carolina Bar has lawyers on staff to answer questions about practice management (including technology), ethics, fee disputes, pro bono opportunities, and more. Bonus resolution: join a Bar section or committee for your practice area and take advantage of the free listserv!  

By Courtney Troutman
Practice Management Assistance Program
South Carolina Bar

Four Tip Friday

Hi everyone!

            1.         If you need an easy way to keep up with legal technology, subscribe to John Simek’s email newsletter, Your IT Consultant. (You can also subscribe via your favorite RSS reader, like Feedly.) Here is a link:  https://youritconsultant.senseient.com/    Recent newsletters have addressed password managers and home routers. And, of course, unless you are in Spaceballs, don’t use 123456 as a password.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6iW-8xPw3k   

2.        If you are looking for serviceable to decent noise cancelling headphones, check out either the ones by TaoTronics here  https://amzn.to/2BSW4OA  or the ones from Anker  https://amzn.to/38GVoaZ  I don’t use the noise cancelling that much, because it does not cancel out my bad dog’s barking, but the sound quality will satisfy the non-audiophile and battery life has come a long way. Plus, as someone on the Clockwise podcast pointed out, if you are wearing earbuds people will bother you, but if you are wearing a big set of cans, they won’t. 

3.        Some of you are saying, OMG I simply cannot put cheap headphones on my delicate ears. In that case, if money is no object, skip to 4, but if it is, check out  https://camelcamelcamel.com/   It will help you figure out when the best time to buy something is.

4.        If you are wondering how to get short links, check out  https://bitly.com/   It will make your life (and blog posts) easier!

We are one day closer to things settling down. That counts for something, right?

Let’s be careful out there!

Michael J. Polk, Esquire
SC Bar Technology Committee
Belser & Belser, PA
Columbia, South Carolina

National Cybersecurity Awareness Month

It’s the most wonderful time of the year! No, not that one, the other one – Cybersecurity Awareness Month!

It is a great time to review some of the basics yourself and with your staff. If you are looking for some ideas, check out the toolkit here: https://niccs.us-cert.gov/national-cybersecurity-awareness-month-2019 (part of the Homeland Security website).

As with any good celebration, it has a theme: OWN IT, SECURE IT, PROTECT IT. The entire toolkit is worth saving for reference (and, at 9 pages, an easier and less stressful read than the comments to any given news story.)

Here are some highlights:

  • Own it. Understand your devices and applications, check your privacy settings on the websites you use, use safe social media practices, and don’t let tech own you.
  • Secure it. Criminals are getting better and better. Five years ago most email scams were laughable – poor formatting, poor appearance, poor grammar, misspellings, and outlandish claims. While those persist, there are many more sophisticated attempts made that can fool those who are unwary or in a hurry. Consider changing your passwords or passphrases if you haven’t in awhile, do not reuse passwords, (bonus points for using a password manager) enable multi-factor authentication where available, and pause before you reply with sensitive information to requests that are out of the ordinary or that create a perceived emergency.
  • Protect it. Stay on top of your digital life. Close unused accounts and practice good cyber hygiene and practices. Make sure to do things like change the default passwords on your internet of things devices (you know, stuff like your smart refrigerator, your smart camera, and your smart socks.)

It has been said that eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. Well, it is now the price of being a part of the digital world. As the sergeant in Hill St. Blues used to say, “Let’s be careful out there.”

Written by:

Michael J. Polk, Chair, South Carolina Bar Technology Committee
Belser & Belser
Columbia, SC

Spot Phishing Attempts

Lawyers can try this tip to see if an email from a prospective client is real: copy and paste any unique language from the sender into Google or another search engine. You only need a sentence, or even part of a sentence, usually. For example, a recent email describing a dog bite claim contained “biting me and causing gaping wounds near my left eye.” When this was pasted into Google, it returned an article about a nearly identical email scam on lawyers in another state. The names and places had been changed in order to be more convincing to the new target/lawyer. Also, remember the usual warning signs, such as misspellings, poor grammar, and unrealistic settlement offers. Phishing attempts are becoming sophisticated, using real company names, real employee names, and other information to make the phish convincing. Some lawyers have even reported that the emails have been followed up with phone calls from the sender. Besides researching on the Internet, contact your malpractice insurer or bar association to see if they can assist or if they have seen similar scams.

Phishing Update: A Whale of a Tale

Bar Bytes has previously addressed the dangers posed by “phishing” emails: messages that seek to trick recipients into revealing secrets and clicking on links or attached files that contain malware.1 The points raised then remain valid today, and this update seeks to offer additional information and strategies for combating phishing attempts. Detecting and avoiding this threat requires constant vigilance; it only takes one mistake to compromise your data. 

Know the Threat 

Phishing attempts take many forms, crafted with varying degrees of deception by scammers. While basic phishing attempts can be relatively easy to spot, targeted phishing attempts – known as “spear-phishing” – are much more troublesome. A spear-phishing email will attempt to trick you or others at your firm by masquerading as a message from a trusted sender. The message may appear to be from a co-worker, a client, or a third party such as a financial institution. Indeed, some scammers have used targeted emails to redirect wire transfers.2 The scammer may include publicly available information, such as details gleaned from an online directory, or even your own website to make the attempt look more convincing. A related tactic, known as “whaling,” is used to prey on an employee’s eagerness to please an employer and occurs when scammers impersonate the management or leadership of an organization. Instead of currying favor with a supervisor, the employee then unknowingly does the bidding of a scammer. 

If you believe that an email is a phishing attempt, delete it and do not interact with the message in any way. Once the recipient of a phishing email has taken the bait and clicked on a malicious link or infected attachment, there is no going back. The recipient of the message may be tricked into revealing confidential information or the email account may be hijacked and used for further phishing attacks. The affected computer may be stricken with “ransomware,” a type of malware that will encrypt your files and make them inaccessible unless you pay a fee to the scammers. A new risk, dubbed “cryptojacking,” allows scammers to syphon processing power from your computer for their own projects – such as mining for cryptocurrencies like BitCoin.3 The best way to avoid these outcomes is to practice a balanced approach of detection and preparation.  

Know Your Contacts 

To defend against all forms of phishing it is helpful for everyone in a firm who is using a computer to be well-versed in recognizing the hallmarks of a phishing email, including: typos, an unfamiliar domain name in the sender’s email address, and demands for an immediate response. The increasingly sophisticated nature of spear-phishing and whaling attempts has made it imperative that suspicious emails be given additional scrutiny. If a dubious email appears to be from an acquaintance or co-worker, it is much better to call that person for verification than take the chance of being hoodwinked. 

A recently reported example of a whaling scheme was directed at academia; scammers posing as deans or department heads attempted to trick faculty at multiple institutions into purchasing gift card codes for them as a favor (promising reimbursement, of course).4 Those who responded to the phishing messages often found the requests odd, unprofessional, or otherwise unlike the individual the scammers were attempting to emulate. However, for newer faculty members – or those unfamiliar with the writing style of a new administrator – these messages can be harder to detect. 

This scenario could easily play out in a law firm setting. Let’s suppose a newly hired employee receives such an email that appears to be from a supervisor, or even a partner. The email could ask the employee to perform any number of tasks: authorize a purchase, provide log-in credentials, or review an attached document that is infected with malware. Newer hires are especially at risk since they may not yet be familiar with the conversation style or writing habits of others in the firm. 

Know Your Plan 

Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst. Here are a few steps that you can take right now to shore up your defenses: 

  • Prepare a plan that details how your firm will respond to a successful cyberattack. Include procedures for isolating infected machines, responding to client inquiries, and for minimizing chaos in the wake of the attack. Consult an IT security professional for addressing additional concerns and consider your insurance options to ensure you have adequate coverage. 
  • Offer cybersecurity training for all employees, and especially new employees. 
  • Ensure that your computers and software are updated and have the latest security patches. 
  • Make routine back-ups of your files and keep at least one copy saved off-site. If your security is compromised, you may be able to restore your operations using one of these recent backups. 

Despite the best efforts at detecting phishing attempts, one may still slip past your defenses. If that happens, your preparation will be vital to preserving not only your data, but your reputation as well; how will your clients respond if your firm suffers a breach and you are caught completely off guard? 

For more information and helpful resources, please visit the University of South Carolina Law Library’s cybersecurity resource guide: https://guides.law.sc.edu/cybersecurity. 

Additional information on protecting your data also can be found on the South Carolina Bar Technology Committee’s page at http://www.scbar.org/tech. 

By: Aaron Glenn, JD, MLIS
Reference Librarian
University of South Carolina Law Library. 


  1. Courtney Kennaday & Emily Worley, Protection from Phishing, SC Lawyer, July 2016, at 10. 
  1. Mark Bassingthwaighte, How to Minimize the Risk of Becoming a Victim of Wire Fraud, South Carolina Bar (Jan. 18, 2017), https://www.scbar.org/bar-news/article/how-minimize-risk-becoming-victim-wire-fraud/. 
  1. James M. McCauley et al., Is It Ethical for Lawyers to Accept Bitcoins and Other Cryptocurrencies?, N.C. St. B.J., Fall 2018, at 36. 
  1. Lindsay Ellis, Gift-Card Phishing Scheme Targets Professors’ Zeal to Please the Dean, The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 1, 2019, at A21. 

Simple Data Security Steps

It costs little or nothing to prevent data theft or other digital mischief. Studies have repeatedly identified that you and your co-workers are far and away the most likely source of any digital security breach.  Computers and systems can only go so far in protecting us from our own laziness, bad habits, and outright goofball moves. 

Just a few habit changes and simple precautions will result in reasonable assurance that your digital information is safe from intrusion by all but the most dedicated hackers:

  • Use “strong” passwords and a different password for each device, site, and account.  If you do not know what a strong password is use a password manager (see below) or other app to create them for you.  And don’t use any of these passwords (https://www.passwordrandom.com/most-popular-passwords).
  • Use a “Password Manager” such as OnePass or LastPass which allows you to have to remember only a single (strong) password to unlock all the other passworded functions and can create “strong” passwords as needed.  Such programs save you from the big three password sins: (1) writing down passwords (and “hiding” them under your blotter, in your top drawer, or in a Word file); (2) using the same password for multiple purposes (one breach unlocks them all); and (3) not using “strong” passwords.
  • Don’t be “social engineered.”  Heart rates go up a tick when you see an email pop in with the subject line “Urgent,” “Payroll,” “Are you available?”  Better read “The 12 most common phishing email subject lines cyber criminals use to fool you.” https://www.zdnet.com/article/these-are-the-12-most-common-phishing-email-subject-lines-cyber-criminals-use-to-fool-you/.  BTW – this same 2019 study found that more than half of employees have replied to unsolicited emails or clicked links in them.
  • Don’t be a “phish.”  An amazing amount of information is just handed over to thieves by people believing that they are communicating with a client, a superior, or a government official.  For a good read on this see https://www.zdnet.com/article/what-is-phishing-how-to-protect-yourself-from-scam-emails-and-more/.
  • That includes government agencies, too.  As the federal government repeatedly broadcasts, the IRS does not call or email you out of the blue for any reason.  And whether IRS or not, don’t give your private information to anyone you do not positively know is on the other end of the line.  And don’t “correct” your personal information if someone says they have it but just want “to confirm” it – and gets it wrong.
  • Examine the email address. I can guarantee Bank of America or Citibank is not having someone from .az (Azerbaijan), .cz (Czech Republic), .ng (Nigeria) or .ru (Russia) working on account security issues.  Also look for closely misspelled email addresses (e.g., cittibank.com or citibanc.com instead of citibank.com). However, there are ways to fake email addresses as well as ways to fake website addresses. “Hovering” over a link in an email is no guarantee that it will reveal the “real” destination. If the email address looks authentic but the email is suspicious, call the purported sender to verify it.
  • Think before you toss or donate anything with a plug or USB port.  Almost all devices you use contain some type of information about you, your business, or you clients, including your cellphone.  But how about the office copier you just gave to the local homeless shelter or the thumb drive you threw in the trash?  In this TechCrunch story, a security researcher collected 366,300 files and images on 85 devices he found on “discarded” devices. For information on safely disposing of old tech, see Old Technology & Equipment.  
  • Finally, please don’t give “Nigerian Princes” or other “royalty” or corporate executive your credit card number no matter what their love or sob story.  That includes “friends” who email you with “travel emergencies” which require immediate funds transfers to “save” them for further troubles.  You may laugh but the “Nigerian Prince Scam” is still raking in the cash – a couple of years ago a raid in Nigeria netted $43.4 million in cash from a suspected “Prince.”

Hopefully, you can see that reasonable digital security can be achieved by a few commonsense good practices. 

By: D.J. Rosinski, Esquire | South Carolina Bar Technology Committee

Let’s Be Careful Out There

One of my favorite television shows growing up was Hill Street Blues. Sergeant Esterhaus (played by Michael Conrad) would conduct roll call, and he would always close with the same words of advice. “Let’s be careful out there.” In keeping with that theme, the now revived South Carolina Bar Technology Committee focused its entry at the bar convention on People, Processes, and Technology: Practical Information Security for Attorneys. Here are some highlights from Mary Lucas, Jacqueline Pavlicek, and Jack Pringle, members of the committee and presenters. 

  1. You need to be constantly vigilant. Unfortunately, information security is not a one time fix. Just like the rest of our practice (and life), everything changes — the threats, the responses, the software, and the other tools required to keep information safe. 
  1. You don’t need to be a superhero to master the basics. Criminals look for easy targets. Regardless of where you are on the computer savvy scale, there are simple steps you can take to dissuade someone looking for an easy score, such as; 
  • Using strong, unique passwords for your online accounts (bonus points for using a password manager.) 
  • Patching and updating all of your software, applications, and operating systems. (You would be surprised at how much protection this affords.) 
  • Using dual factor authentication. 
  • Avoiding public computers or WiFi. If you are going to work at Starbucks, a hotel, or an airport, for example, use a virtual private network (VPN). 
  • Avoiding clicking on links in emails supposedly from your financial institution or other online account. (Your password manager might help you here because it shouldn’t log you in to a strange website.) 
  • Backing up your data. In this day and age, there is no reason not to have at least two backups. 
  • Testing your backups. In the words of Stan Lee, “”nuff said”. 
  • Password protect your cell phone and other mobile devices. 
  • Being skeptical. Part of being a lawyer is to plan for the worst and, to paraphrase Ronald Reagan, trust but verify. Applying that same skepticism to your digital interactions will make you a hard target. 
  1. You don’t need to run your organization like Fort Knox. Once again, merely doing the basics may keep your organization out of harm’s way by; 
  • Controlling access to your offices, computers, and computer networks. 
  • Protecting and security your computer networks (including wireless networks) . 
  • Installing updates and patches to all software. 
  • Backing up the data of the whole organization. 
  • Training all members of the organization. Anything helps. If you see something on the morning news about a new virus, pass it on. If you read an article from a bar journal of your choice about the importance of security, pass it on. Repetition is the key. A byproduct of this awareness may be more open communication, so if someone gets an email claiming to have nude pictures of the recipient and, to prove it, provides an old password, that person might be more apt to ask someone ahead of time before clicking on a link. (Note: If you haven’t heard, this is a real scam making the rounds.) 
  1. If you send or receive wires, 2019 is the year to tighten up your procedures. Here are some tips the speakers shared: 
  • Consider having two authorized people to send a wire — one to initiate and one to approve. 
  • Validate all payment instructions even if they appear to be internal, particularly if the instructions are marked urgent or confidential. It is worth picking up the phone or walking down to visit (imagine that—talking to someone face to face!) 
  • The best practice is to make and confirm payment methods or instructions by phone. Do not use the contact information in the suspicious email!!! 
  • Guard and monitor your bank accounts. 
  • Consider using encrypted email communications or client portal. (Don’t be surprised if in five or ten years encryption is the rule, not the exception.) 
  1. Consider calling in some professional help, or asking questions of the help you have. Everyone knows that person who you can rely on to fix your document formatting, to get the printer working, to install new software, to generally squash your tech bugs. However smart your neice or nephew is, or your friend’s cousin’s son in law, or whoever, make sure that they know the security end of things. Most people I know have a “break fix” mentality, that is, if it ain’t broke, don’t worry about fixing it. As discussed above and at the bar convention, that will not keep you safe. So,whoever you get to help you, check out the SC Bar website for some tips on the right questions them.  

So, on behalf of the SC Bar Technology Committee, let’s be careful out there. 

By: Mike Polk, Chair
SC Bar Technology Committee
Belser & Belser, PA
Columbia, SC

Books Help Lawyers Learn Technology

Some of us prefer good, old-fashioned paper and ink. When adopting new (or new-to-us) technology, it may be easier to grasp if we can read up on the technology before we dive into using it. Studies show there are real benefits to reading from paper rather than a screen, including increased speed and recall.

Here are a few paper-and-ink books that can help any lawyer increase their comfort level with technology that is relevant to their law practice. SC Bar members can check out any of these books by mail from the SC Bar Lending Library, or in person from the law library at the University of South Carolina School of Law.

The 2018 Solo and Small Firm Legal Technology Guide: Critical Decisions Made Simple by Nelson, Simek, and Maschke offers current recommendations of what technology to buy and use. The authors explain what technology they believe the average lawyer needs and why; when a free or low-cost product is sufficient; and why it is advisable to upgrade specific features.

The ABA Cybersecurity Handbook: A Resource for Attorneys, Law Firms, and Business Professionals, Second Edition by Rhodes and Litt focuses on information security. Authors explain how hackers are updating their means of attack, and offer ideas for protective measures that are tailored to suit lawyers in private practice, in-house, non-profit, or government settings.

Cloud Computing for Lawyers by Nicole Black defines cloud computing and lays out the risks and benefits of using cloud-based billing systems and/or practice management systems. Ethics, privacy, and security are all addressed, along with practical tips on incorporating cloud-based services into your law practice. The sample terms, policies, and agreements in the appendices appeal to the lawyer in all of us.

Electronic Discovery for Small Cases: Managing Digital Evidence and ESI by Olson and O’Connor recognizes that e-discovery is not just for large cases handled by large law firms anymore. Litigators at smaller firms or who may be dealing with smaller quantities of electronically stored information (ESI) will benefit from the authors’ guidance on budget-friendly solutions for producing, searching, and managing ESI at every stage of litigation.

Fastcase: The Definitive Guide by Brian Huddleston introduces lawyers to the free—that’s right, free—legal research platform available to SC Bar members. The author walks the reader through the basics of using Fastcase to search cases, statutes, regulations, and more. The book also includes lesser known tips and tricks. For example, if you have a document on your computer that contains case citations, you can drop that document into Fastcase Cloud Linking to turn those case citations into links that a judge, a client, or anyone else—with or without a Fastcase subscription of their own—can click on to view the cases themselves.

Find Info Like a Pro: Mining the Internet’s Public Records for Investigative Research by Levitt and Rosch puts a wealth of publicly available information at a lawyer’s fingertips. Factual research can be as important as legal research when lawyers need to discover addresses for service of process; names of potential heirs; real and personal assets; liens, judgments, and UCCs; professional licenses; and more.

LinkedIn in One Hour for Lawyers by Kennedy and Shields introduces this online professional networking tool to those who aren’t familiar with using social media for business connections and referrals. The authors use layman’s terms to explain what LinkedIn is, how it works, and how to get started. Note that there are many other titles in the “…In One Hour for Lawyers” series. The ABA Law Practice Management Section’s goal in publishing these is to help busy lawyers get up to speed on a particular platform or software, with a focus on understanding whether and how it can help their practice.

Social Media as Evidence: Cases, Practice Pointers, and Techniques by Briones and Tagvoryan guides lawyers through social media issues that come up in practice. The authors carefully demonstrate what happens when legal concepts that have always applied to documents (authentication, discovery, litigation hold, preservation, records retention policy) are now applied in the social media realm.

Check Out a Book on Legal Technology
All the books described above are available for checkout from SC Bar’s PMAP Lending Library (by mail) and the law library at USC School of Law (in person). These are only a small sampling of the current guides to technology available in print from booksellers and libraries. It’s worth asking your local community college or university library, or your local public library, whether they can loan you these and other legal technology books. Even if such books are not on the shelves, you may be able to request to borrow them for free through an interlibrary loan.

Eve Ross, Reference Librarian
Univeristy of South Carolina School of Law Library
SC Bar Technology Committee